Allergy is an unusual hypersensitivity to various substances, which most people do not cause painful reactions. Typically, the enemies are household dust, plant pollen, mold, pet epithelium, some types of food, etc. These agents become allergens and allergies occur.
The last decades of XX century are characterized by a significant increase in the frequency of allergic diseases. The prevalence of allergies resembles an epidemic, over the past 20 years it has increased by 3-4 times and covers in different countries of the world from 10 to 30% of the population, and the disease often occurs in a severe, unusual form. This is due to an increase in allergenic load on humans.
Allergens are foreign substances, which, entering the body, become the main cause of allergic reactions. In the first years of life, the development of the disease is provoked primarily by food allergens (cow’s milk, eggs, fish, cereals, vegetables and fruits of orange or red color).
It is very important to diagnose allergies before the crisis, so it is better to come to the allergist at the first suspicion. The following symptoms should be a cause for concern: prolonged runny nose, itchy nose and sneezing attacks;
itchy eyelids, tears; red eyes; skin rashes and itching;
swelling; shortness of breath.
It is necessary to know exactly what causes allergies. To do this, today there is a wide range of methods and tests.
Skin scarifying samples
The traditional method of allergy diagnostics is allergic sampling. Skin samples are placed on the inner surface of the forearms. A scratch is made with a sterile scarifier and a drop of diagnostic allergen is applied. After 20 minutes you can evaluate the results. If swelling or redness occurs at the site of allergen application, the sample is considered positive. During one study, 15-20 samples can be evaluated.
Absolute contraindications for this study include: acute infection; allergy or other chronic acute disease; taking antihistamine and hormonal drugs. Also a feature of samples with pollen allergens is the possibility of their conduct only outside the flowering season of herbs (October-March).
Relative contraindications include the age of the child. Usually, this study is conducted in children after 3 years of age, because young children have high skin reactivity and a high probability of false positive results.
Skin scarifying tests are carried out in a specialized office by an allergic immunologist who has all the necessary practical skills. The purpose of this diagnostic test is to take into account indications and contraindications. Skin tests may be performed only in the period of clinical remission of allergopathology. Samples with pollen allergens are performed outside the flowering season.